Updated 01-22-15. Have a request or suggestion for a glossary term? Please leave a comment below. Also, Vietnamese banh mi is not pho, but I get enough inquiries about it so it's included here too.
Okay it is not pho but I received plenty of questions about it so here it is.
Vietnamese bánh mì or banh mi has two main meanings. One, banh mi in general means a loaf/slice/piece of bread, most often tied to the French baguette, but can also be used to describe sliced bread and other breads. Two, banh mi refers to the bread stuffed with a variety of meats, vegetables and pickles. In a Viet sandwich shop, you can buy the whole baguette banh mi, and also order the bread stuffed with meat banh mi.
The word Bánh itself really has several meanings, but in this context it means any flour-, rice- or wheat-based food that is baked, cooked, or steamed (bánh ngọt means sweet cake, bánh bao means ball-shaped steamed dumpling, bánh chưng means rice cake, etc.) The word Mì also has several meanings (one of which is egg noodle) but in this context it means bột mì or wheat flour.
Banh pho is the noodle used in pho dish. There are several sizes of banh pho available, ranging from a small width (1/16") to wider widths (1/8", 1/4" or sometimes even 3/8"). This is similar to spaghetti versus angel hair in Italian dishes. What differentiates banh pho from other noodle varieties is banh pho has square or rectangular cross-sections (depending on width size), as opposed to mostly round cross-sections most other noodles come in. Read more on Banh Pho.
Bo chin nac
Well-done sliced brisket. A meat ingredient in beef pho.
Rare sliced eye of round steak. A meat ingredient in beef pho. Bo tai is normally included in the bowl when served, but can be ordered as a side dish (raw) to be cooked in hot broth at the table.
Beef meatballs, sometime with tendons. A meat ingredient in beef pho. Can be ordered included in the pho bowl when served or as a side bowl in broth.
Beef tendon. A meat ingredient in beef pho.
Fatty brisket. A meat ingredient in beef pho.
Flank. A meat ingredient in beef pho.
Nước mắm or nuoc mam
Nước mắm or nuoc mam is fish sauce and the basis for many dipping sauce mixes used in Vietnamese cuisine.
In its purest form, nuoc mam or fish sauce is a condiment that is derived from sea products (anchovies, squid, crab, etc.) that have been allowed to ferment. Literally, “nước” means liquid or sauce, and “mắm” means a sort of fermented fish-, squid- or shrimp-based, thick and saucy substance or paste often used to enhance food flavors through mixing or dipping.
Vietnamese for beef pho, the most common type of pho. See this post: "What is Vietnamese Pho: Think You Know? Think Again"
Vietnamese for chicken pho, also a very popular type of pho. Boneless chicken pieces can be served as chunks in the noodle bowl, or as side dish (not boneless) with dipping fish sauce and ginger. Choice of white or dark meats. Free-range chicken is preferred.
Phở is a Vietnamese soup noodle dish served in a large bowl that can be a meal in itself. Phở is a noodle dish and not a soup, and can be enjoyed at any time of the day and is not tied to any particular meal, early or late. See this post: "What is Vietnamese Pho: Think You Know? Think Again"
Beef tripe. A meat ingredient in beef pho.
Crunchy flank. A meat ingredient in beef pho.
Viet or Việt
Vietnamese word for Vietnamese, Vietnamese people or the Vietnamese language. Viet and Vietnamese are used interchangeably on this site lovingpho.com.